PTK :CONTEXTUAL LEARNING IN ‘PAKEM’ ATHMOSPHERE IN ENGLISH CLASSROOM TEACHING

CONTEXTUAL LEARNING IN ‘PAKEM’ ATHMOSPHERE ON ENGLISH CLASSROOM TEACHING

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. BACK GROUND

Global era has reached almost every country in the world. It brings great impacts in all aspect of life. The more capable men the easier for them to find job opportunities at any fields. People should be competent and skillful to be able to get better lives in fully competitive world. One can not count on his/her knowledge but he/she must be able to own life skills. Today life skills are spoken more often in education. School students do not only have to learn knowledge but also gain some life skills. Communication ability is one of the most important life skills that should be mastered in facing competitive world.. The ability to state and express idea, thought and opinion, to analyze, discuss, describe and take appropriate decisions are really needed , as the development of science, technology and information, increase rapidly day by day.

In many work fields most people can not state their ideas and opinion well since they are not accustomed to speaking, feel ashamed, hesitate and fear to make mistakes. It is caused by the education style (pattern) that do not give them any chance to support and encourage their bravery. Moreover, many school learning still tend to transfer knowledge in one way communication style. It seldom involves students to actively participate in sharing idea, expressing opinion and thought.

English as international language is spoken all over the world. In the global era, English takes an important role as communication language used in many sectors of life, such as trading, bilateral relationship, politic, science, technology and many others. People should understand and master English in order to gain broader knowledge, information and technology. The problems the people meet are they know English a little, just as a foreign language lesson they got in school and it is nearly forgotten. That would not happen if they knew that English would be used in almost any field someday. On the other hand, most of the language teaching and learning processes in classrooms do not develop contextual communication atmosphere whereas students can not use contextual fixed expressions in communicating with one another. Teachers just ask students to arrange a dialogue, memorize the dialogue then perform it in front of the classroom.

Teaching English as a foreign language should be directed to be lively communicative process. The view of language as a social communication means, states that the language model used as a based theory for curriculum is a language model of cultural and situational contexts. In reality, teaching and learning activity is often disturbed by several factors i.e. the thought that English is difficult to learn , has complex grammar and strange speech, and most of the students are lack of vocabulary. Those make students speak less. In learning activity, students seldom get an opportunity to express idea, opinion, and thought , the activities often seem monotone, there are less interaction between teacher to students, students to teachers and students to students. Those could happen since English is foreign language that has different grammatical rules, and cultural sense with our language. Besides English is not a second language in this country, although it has been used in almost job opportunities, public places, and even some good schools.

To solve the problem, teachers should think and do some innovative learnings that use some approaches and strategy to empower students’ competences. Today some teaching models are focused on processing approach, whereas in class activity students are involved to actively participate, do cooperation, share experiences, work together, analyze, summarize and evaluate the activity. The teaching learning process are more students oriented, while the role of the teacher is to be a facilitator. Students are directed to be able to do and think. The aim of the learning activity emphasizes not only to the substances and knowledge but also its values so that it feels more meaningful. This shows there is an active learning among students in class. The active learning is important to do as it was stated in brain-based learning i.e. : (a) the learning process involves all human dimension aspects, (b) people who are always eager to find out the meaning of something is nature, (c) people easily understand if they know the facts naturally or spatial mind (the form or pictures). In active learning , the concrete and contextual experience involve all aspects ( cognitive, emotional and physical ) so that it increases /develops physical, creativity, emotional, social and academic abilities. Active learning also develops the ability of students’ language and social. Doing the assignments in grouping will create communicative atmosphere in which students are able to exchange their thought and learn to negotiate one another. Vygotsky (1978) said that students need an opportunity to express their verbal ability. By involving students to speak , they will internalize and reflected what they had told to be a thought and reflection and evaluate their weakness and strength. In line with the above point of view, Vernon A Magnesen said that people learned 90% from what they said and did. The basic principal of active learning which involves students’ participation was constructivism theory. Piaget also said that students learn through concrete experience by reflecting his experience.

Based on the above matters, the writer tried to present a teaching learning model for English in SMP Nasional KPS Balikpapan based on Contextual Teaching Learning . One of the techniques of contextual learning used, was Cooperative Learning. The learning process was conducted in a PAKEM atmosphere. PAKEM is a condition of active, creative, efficient, and fun learning. The topic was about the advantages of using modern electrical media since students use them almost everyday and are often influenced with the pictures or program offered. The reasons of this research were (1) the writer is a teacher at this school. (2) Students were less motivated to speak. (3) Most students could not express their idea, opinion, thought well. ( 4) Students should be wise to use modern electrical media and get good things from them for their life. (5) Students can get daily value messages from modern electrical media .

The theme of ‘Light Technology’ and sub theme ‘Electrical Media” was chosen with a reason it was related to human life which is developing rapidly and should be concerned since it has had a great impact to human life. Besides that, in facing global era , students must be prepared to get in touch with the various information and knowledge that can be accessed easily from some electrical media. On the other hand most electrical media has a great tremendous effect to school students’ habit, behavior and mind set. It must be concerned that the various information should be followed by having deep understanding and self controlling to separate the good and the bad influence.

The chosen competence was communication ability in which students must be able to perform interpersonal and intrapersonal communication written and orally to express idea, opinion, and thought. The language focus were formed in some indicators so that the students were hopefully able to

(1) express idea and opinion about the use of modern electrical media

(2) asking questions of any factual information about modern electrical media

(3) answering and giving factual information about modern electrical media

The reasons of the chosen competence were

(1) Most students could not express their idea, opinion, thought well since they feel hesitate, not confident, shame and fear to make mistakes and are not certain of their speech ability..

(2) Most students often made mistakes to use sentence phrases in asking and giving factual information.

(3) Language is a habit. It is necessary to create an atmosphere where the fixed patterns of the language are used directly in a conversation atmosphere whereas the students also practice to speak

To overcome such learning problems the writer tried to present a learning process used cooperative learning approach in Pakem conditions that was a set of learning condition in which the students seemed to be active, creative and curious in following learning activity, and the process of learning was effective and fun.

B. THE SCOPE

The topic was focused on the practice of doing interpersonal and or transactional personal communication orally in order to express idea, opinion and thought, and asking and giving factual information about the role of electrical media.. The subject of the research was the third grader students of SMP Nasional KPS Balikpapan, in academic year 2005/2006.

C. THE GOALS

1. To describe a teaching model of a group cooperative learning in PAKEM ( an active, creative, effective and fun learning ) atmosphere to encourage students to use language in interpersonal, transactional, ideational, and textual communication for asking and answering factual information

  1. To describe the application of a group cooperative learning in PAKEM (an active, creative, effective and fun learning ) atmosphere to encourage students to use language in interpersonal , transactional, ideational, and textual communication for asking and answering factual information .
  2. To describe students’ ability to practice communicating their idea, opinion, and thought in cooperative learning and PAKEM atmosphere, in group

D. THE USE

It is hoped this writing can be useful for :

1. Students :

  • Students can perform interpersonal, ideational and textual communication in group by performing discussion, and presentation. The activity the students did was an act of using English for direct communication not only to do sums tasks/exercises. The language competence referred to the ability to apply and understand the use of standard English, in lexical rules, vocabulary expanding, intonation and spelling.
  • To develop the values of social interaction, togetherness, commitment to share ideas, appreciate others’ thought/opinion, give objections and suggestion in a good manner.
  • To gain direct experience by relating / connecting the idea, thought and opinion, contextually with the real life.
  • To develop a life skill i.e. the ability to do interactive communication directly.

2. English Teacher

  • The learning activity looked / seemed to be more useful and effective..
  • The learning process and situation looked fun
  • To motivate teacher to be more creative in finding the approach and techniques to do various teaching learning activities that are useful for education

3. School

  • To increase innovative teaching learning .

E. THE DEFENITIONS

(1) Contextual learning is a learning process that relates a subject matter with students’ concrete life. Some of its strategies are emphasized to problem solving, students become independent learners, and having a relationship with learners’ home, school and society. Most of the learning strategies has been associated with contextual learning. Among of them are problem solving learning, cooperative learning, inquiry based learning, work based learning, project learning, and in- service learning.

(2) In cooperative learning there are some elements which are involved one another. (1) positive dependent. (2) face to face interaction (3) individual accountability and (4) interpersonal and intrapersonal skill or social interaction which is meant to be learnt.. (Abdurrahman & Bintoro, 2000 : 78-79 ).

(3) Social interaction happens when students perform togetherness in working their task, communicate to one another, trust and appreciate others and manage a conflict.

(4 ) The learning goals will be easy to reach if the learning process is set such condition of PAKEM atmosphere. ( the learning condition which are active, creative, effective and fun ). The Students activities can be seen when the students do mental activity which is followed by physical activity in solving mechanistic problem that had never been done before. Students seem to be creative in processing and producing things, through problem solving, critical thought, analyzing and synthesis information. Furthermore they will be giving explanation with the reasons, and communicating their finding broader and reflecting what they have done. (Pesek and Krisner 2000) . The learning process will be effective when the learning activities are valuable. Teacher should understand the class condition and realize the ability of their students in absorbing the lesson , motivate and encourage students to be able to face challenges, observe and evaluate the effort. A fun atmosphere of learning activities should be set and conditioned so that the students are motivated to be actively participated.

CHAPTER II.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS

A. Planning / Learning Preparation.

1. The Lesson Plan

Subject : English

Grader/Semester : III SMP / 1

Time Allocation : 6 X 45 minutes

Based Competency :

Expressing ideas and opinions

Asking and answering about factual information

Performance :

Expressing a/an thought, idea and or opinion about the great tremendous

effect of some electronic media in the real life.

To use the media for developing self values of human being .

Indicators

1. To explain the advantages of having one or more electronic media for people’s life

2. To explain the disadvantages of having one of electronic media for people’s life

3. To use one of electronic media for gaining messages of a better and meaningful life.

Core Material :

1. Fixed phrases of expressing idea and opinion.

2. Reviewing some lexical grammar that had been learnt

2.1 Asking and giving opinion :

– What is your opinion of ….? In my opinion,….

– Do you think it gives good or bad influence ? I think ………

– Electronic media has had a great tremendous effect on our daily life.

-What do you think ? As far as I’m concerned

2.2. Asking and answering about factual information by using

The Simple Present Tense form, Modals, Adjectives, etc

in performing communication and giving explanation.

Such as an interactive dialogue below :

      • Is television useful for our life ?
      • Doesn’t it have bad influence on you as students ?
      • Which is better, watching TV or not ?
      • How should we watch the programs ?
      • What is your opinion about some spreading bad program from electrical media today ?
      • What should we do ?
      • What are the advantages and disadvantages of connecting cyber ?
      • What is your suggestion ? Do you agree ? Why / Why not ?

    Learning Experience

    1. To arrange jumbled words into good sentences

    2. To get informed of some good and bad things of electronic media from reading texts

    3. To discuss the topic relating to the real life

    4. To present the result of the discussion

    5. To perform an interactive dialogue

    6. To implement the topic to the real life / needs

    Methods / Approach :

    1. Ask and answer

    2. Discussion

    3. Presentation

    4. Interactive dialogue

    5. Tasks assignment

    Aids and sources :

    1. Stationeries : markers, paper, board, colorful paint.

    2. Visual aid : picture, TV, Video, LCD

    3. Sources : wise words from Holy Koran, Bible, web sites, VCD/DVD

    of Harun Yahya collections.

    4. English lesson books for SMP third graders

    Evaluation :

    1. During the learning process

    2. At the end of the teaching and learning activity

    B. The Learning Strategy

    First Meeting : 2 x 45 minutes

    1. Starting with asking and answering about TV program

    2. Pre activity : warming up with guessing game of some tools or household objects

    3. Students were doing puzzle games. Students were divided into some groups. Each student in the group had one word on a piece of small cartoon. The students had to gather the cartoons they got and arrange them into a correct sentence order. The group then sticked or wrote the sentence on the board. The fastest group would get a star as a reward.

    4. While activity : Starting with reading some texts of television and radio as electronic media , continuing with asking and answering activities and doing some tasks.

    5. Post activity : students were divided into six groups of five. Each group discussed the tasks to find out the advantages and disadvantages of having / using one of electronic media . Group A discussed the effect of having television, group B talked about cyber, group C talked about radio, Group D talked about VCD/DVD , group E talked about computer, group F talked about Mobile Phone. Students worked together in their group to share ideas, search information from any sources ; the library, cyber zone , etc.

    Second Meeting : 2 x 45 minutes

    1. Starting with apperception activity.

    2. Pre activity : Time for presentation preparation

    3. While activity : Each group presented their discussion result in front of the class. Interactive dialogue went among students in their groups . The group should support the reasons of their argumentation

    4. Teacher and students found the conclusion of the discussion presentation.

    5. The Post activity was an individual task to produce good deeds that could be done from the use of electronic media such as writing and typing wise words / messages asking others to remind and do good deeds, motivate and encourage one another . The messages were searched from SMS cellular ,VCD/DVD of Harun Yahya’s series, cyber, television and radio program. Computer was used to type the messages. The words were printed on a piece of A2 paper to be sticked on a display board or on a large board of 60 x 150 cm2 and hanged up above the school gallery.. The wise words/ messages were written in two languages, English and Indonesian.

    Third Meeting : 2 x 45 minutes

    1. Starting with saying prayer.

    2. Teacher checked the students’ work, made corrections on grammar, phrases or

    words’ spelling. Students did some correction

    3. Students sticked their work on the display board and or hang the work up above

    the school gallery.

    4. Teacher praised students’ work and gave a reward to the good groups.

    C. Assessment

    C.1. Assessment forms :

    1. Written

    2. Performance

    3. Tasks / product

    4. Presentation

    5. Porto folio ( the product of wise words )

    6. Interactive dialogue ( mind set )

    C.2. The assessment procedure

    1. The written assessment was done by seeing the result of the discussion

    2. The performance assessment was done during the activity ( the togetherness, team work, sharing ideas, and the thought ).

    3. The tasks assessment was seen from the currency and appropriate discussion result at the presentation.

    4. Porto folio assessment was carried out from the collection of wise words which are sticked on wall magazine, display board, and hanged above the school gallery.

    5. Interactive dialogue assessment was measured by the active and participative responds, the dynamic atmosphere and the fluency speaking

    C.3. Assessment Sheets :

    3.1 Discussion Group Performance

    No

    Group Name

    Participative

    Communicative

    Active

    Creative

    1

    Radio

    2

    Television

    3

    Cyber

    4

    VCD / DVD

    5

    Computer

    6

    Mobile Phone

    3.2.Group Presentation Performance

    No

    Group Name

    Accuracy

    Fluency

    Vocabulary

    Grammar

    Interactive

    3.3. Individual written assessment

    3.3.1. Answer these questions

    1. Electronic Media has had a great tremendous effect on our life.

    a. Mention the effects caused by electronic media in our life.

    b. What do you think ? State your opinion and the reason.

    2. Write a message or wise words you got from radio or

    television programs, VCD/DVD of Harun Yahya’s series, Cyber,

    or Prayer Cellular Messages ( Aa’Gym, etc ).

    3.3.2. Fill out the form of questionnaire

    No

    Statements

    Agree

    Disagree

    Neutral

    1

    I like this learning model

    2

    I was challenged to speak

    3

    I was very curious and exited to express my ideas, opinion and thought

    4

    I speak more than before

    5

    I got valuable things from others’ argument

    6

    I can enlarge my vocabulary

    CHAPTER III.

    FINDING AND DISCUSSION

    From the teaching and learning process done, it seemed that students were excited to work in group and anthracic to explain their thought, opinion and idea in a dynamic interactive dialogue atmosphere. In doing individual tasks it also seemed that every student tried to present their best work. For the teacher, these helped her much in presenting the lesson. The teacher did not have to give much explanation and exercise to teach vocabulary and the use of some fixed phrases. The goal of English learning seemed to be easy to reach in written and oral practice. The learning process showed some steps which was similar to the five Pakem approaches states, whereas students were experienced, interacted, communicated, innovated, and reflected knowledge directly. Besides,teacher could give value messages to the students when they ask their problem

    Students were the subject of learning. They experienced what they had to do in solving the problem the teacher gave . They read any articles about the given topic, searched information from any sources, looked up dictionaries to help them translate what they wanted to say and wrote messages in a good style.

    By group working conditioned, students were involved in multiple interactions among themselves, i.e. : in doing group tasks, and discussions. When arranging words into good sentences, the students showed a good effort. Some poor/ lower students asked the meaning of the words, others explained the meaning, and together arrange the words, read the sentences and rearrange when they were not in an appropriate order.

    Students were accustomed to speaking in front of the classroom in formal situation. In presenting their group discussion results, students communicated their idea, opinion or thought and responded others’ point of views directly. The learning process ran much more better and lively than just listening teacher’s explanation. Students seemed more expressive and did not get bored since it was not monotone.

    By having interactive dialogue, students shared ideas, accepted and or expressed their objections to others’ opinion, and thought. In this case students were trained to think more critically, develop their ideas and thought, be willing to receive others’ thought which was reasonable, and motivated to do their best. These activities showed a dynamic class atmosphere and it is needed for learning innovation.

    Corrections done by students to students and teacher to students made a large comprehensive builders in understanding and mastering the topic and the language use. Students realized the mistakes, and could assess what should be and not be done. Students reflected their success and failure for the development of their characters.

    The above processes viewed active, creative , effective and fun learning as the students showed during and after the activity of teaching learning process. Working together in group to solve the problem, take decision and communicate their idea, opinion and thought and create some useful things, made the students get experience not only in enlarging and improving their language knowledge, but also having social values, such as doing interaction, controlling emotion, sharing ideas and learning how to receive and appreciate others’ thought. These are very useful and effective for learning a language and teach the students to own a communication life skill and be brave to speak and express their ideas or thought in informal and formal forum.

    From the questionnaires result, most of the students stated that they liked the teaching model, felt challenge to speak , could speak more , were curious and excited to express their ideas, opinion, and thought, and got valuable things from others’ arguments, and could enlarge their vocabulary.

    CHAPTER IV.

    CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

    Based on the explanation , the finding, and the above discussion, it can be concluded that :

    1. Encouraging students to express ideas, opinion and thought in English subject matter is necessary to do. Students have to be driven to have a communication life skill to face and get in touch with a world matter in globalization era.

    2. The contextual learning process which relates the topic with the students’ life should be concerned as the best technique since it conditions students to do problem solving, have learning experience, communicate the ideas or thought, evaluate and reflect them.

    3. It needs a strategy and good preparation to make a teaching learning process successful, effective and meaningful. Students must be involved as subjects of learning, participative actively and brought to a fun condition. Cooperative learning in Pakem atmosphere ( active, creative, effective and fun learning), seemed suitable to be chosen since it has given good / positive impacts, like : (1) The students felt fun and comfort when they had to do some tasks in group.(2) The students seemed to be more active and creative in problem solving activity. (3) The students were highly motivated in asking , answering and explaining opinions. (4) The students showed a good togetherness, helped and interacted one another .(5) The students could communicate their thought, evaluate and reflect what they got in the learning process.

    It is suggested that this learning startegy may not be useful nor run smoothly when it is not well managed, most students are not courageous, students tend to work alone, the teacher can not give comments, advice nor do correction to the students’ work.

    DAFTAR PUSTAKA

    .

    Megawati, R., Latifah, M., Dina, W. F., 2005. Pendidikan Holistik, Cimanggis: Indonesia Heritage Foundation.

    Mulyana, R., 2004, Mengartikulasikan Pendidikan Nilai, Bandung:Alfabeta

    Nurhadi, Yasin B., Senduk, A.G., 2004, Pembelajaran Kontekstual dan penerapannya dalam KBK, Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang.

    Sofyana, A., 2004., Communicative English in Context Competence-Based English for SLTP. Bandun

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